Soft Contact Lenses
More than 100 million people wear contact lenses every day. Otto Wichterle, a Czech scientist, was the first to develop soft contact lenses. However, he had many hurdles to overcome on his way to developing this invention. The research was twice cancelled and Otto had to carry on from his home. The biggest problem was not the substance used, but the mechanism of production. The edges of the contact lenses were frayed and it was expensive to smooth them. Wichterle found his solution when stirring coffee – centrifugal casting. It is interesting to note that his first contact lens machine was built out of a children’s building kit and his wife’s gramophone. Since his invention, the production of contact lenses has been growing.
Dactyloscopy is today a great identification tool used for criminology, even though most did not realize its potential for a long time. It was J. E. Purkyne who discovered the 9 basic patterns and the uniqueness of fingerprints. Yet, he did not foresee that such information could one day be used as an identifying tool for crimes. Although his contribution was only physiological, it played an important role in the development of dactyloscopy.
Truvada is currently the best medicine used for HIV virus treatment. Truvada does not eliminate the HIV virus or cure AIDS, but works as an antivirotic. This means that the medicine prevents the virus from spreading. It was invented by Professor Holý and it is not only used to decelerate the proliferation of HIV, but also as a preventative for people with high risk of infection.
Blood transfusions used to be risky in the past, as there was no cognitive way to identify blood types. Doctors and psychiatrists believed in the mixing of blood of two opposite temperaments. For example, they believed that if a wife and a husband had problems in their relationship, the mixing of their blood would help to resolve the conflict. The results were catastrophic and ultimately blood transfusions were banned for a long time.
Jan Jansky, a Czech psychotherapist, was aware of this problem and started to analyze blood. He found 4 different blood types and identified them as I, II, III and IV. Today, these types are known as A, B, AB and O.
Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian biologist and physician, is noted by some as the first to distinguish between different blood groups. He is said to have made this discovery around the same time as Jan Jansky, as did other scientists around the world. All of them worked independently from each other. To this day, it is hard to determine the one true originator of blood types. Landsteiner first discovered only 3 blood types, but later found a fourth and also described RH factors. He named them A, B, AB and O – a terminology still used today. That is one of the reasons why is he considered as the originator of blood types.
At its infancy, plastic surgery was not about breast or nose enhancements, but more about using plastic as an improvement tool for people with congenital disorders, harelips, face injuries and burns. Professor Frantisek Burian and Arnold Jirásek felt the need to use plastic surgery as a way to help soldiers that were burned and injured during World War I. When the war was over, they realized the necessity to expand its use to the general public, especially little children affected by facial disorders.
Professor Heyrovský invented the Polarograph in 1922. The device is used to provide a quantitative analysis of substances in drugs and metabolisms, widely used in toxicology. It can determine the presence of vitamins, alkaloids, hormones, coloring agents and other substances, that enable doctors to provide the right diagnosis and treatment.
Source: Czech Hospital Placements